Machine studying and different synthetic intelligence (AI) strategies have had immense success with scientific and technical duties similar to predicting how protein molecules fold and recognising faces in a crowd. Nonetheless, the applying of those strategies to the humanities are but to be absolutely explored.
What can AI inform us about philosophy and faith, for instance? As a place to begin for such an exploration, we used deep studying AI strategies to analyse English translations of the Bhagavad Gita, an historical Hindu textual content written initially in Sanskrit.
Utilizing a deep learning-based language mannequin referred to as BERT, we studied sentiment (feelings) and semantics (meanings) within the translations. Regardless of big variations in vocabulary and sentence construction, we discovered that the patterns of emotion and which means had been broadly comparable in all three.
This analysis opens a path to the usage of AI-based applied sciences for evaluating translations and reviewing sentiments in a variety of texts.
An historical ebook of knowledge
The Bhagavad Gita is among the central Hindu sacred and philosophical texts. Written greater than 2,000 years in the past, it has been translated into greater than 100 languages and has been of curiosity to western philosophers because the 18th century.
The 700-verse poem is part of the bigger Mahabharata epic, which recounts the occasions of an historical struggle believed to have occurred at Kurukshetra close to modern-day Delhi in India.
Indian philosophy helps us see clearly, act properly in an interconnected world
The textual content of the Bhagavad Gita relates a dialog between the Hindu deity Lord Krishna and a prince referred to as Arjuna. They talk about whether or not a soldier ought to go to struggle for ethics and obligation (or “dharma”) if they’ve shut mates or household on the opposing facet.
The textual content has been instrumental in laying the foundations of Hinduism. Amongst many different issues, it’s the place the philosophy of karma (a non secular precept of trigger and impact) originates.
Students have additionally regarded the Bhagavad Gita as a ebook of psychology, administration, management and battle decision.
Wikimedia Commons, CC BY
There have been numerous English translations of the Bhagavad Gita, however there may be not a lot work that validates their high quality. Translations of songs and poems not solely break rhythm and rhyming patterns, however may also end result within the lack of semantic info.
In our analysis, we used deep studying language fashions to analyse three chosen translations of the Bhagavad Gita (from Sanskrit to English) with semantic and sentiment analyses which assist in the analysis of translation high quality.
We used a pre-trained language mannequin often called BERT, developed by Google. We additional tuned the mannequin utilizing a human-labelled coaching dataset based mostly on Twitter posts, which captures 10 completely different sentiments.
These sentiments (optimistic, grateful, empathetic, pessimistic, anxious, unhappy, irritated, denial, shock, and joking) had been adopted from our earlier analysis into social media sentiment throughout the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic.
Chandra, Writer supplied
Patterns of sentiment
The three translations we studied used very completely different vocabulary and syntax, however the language mannequin recognised comparable sentiments within the completely different chapters of the respective translations. Based on our mannequin, optimistic, irritated and stunned sentiments are probably the most expressed.
Chandra and Kulkarni, Writer supplied
Furthermore, the mannequin confirmed how the general sentiment polarity adjustments (from adverse to optimistic) over the course of the dialog between Arjuna and Lord Krishna.
Arjuna is pessimistic in direction of the start and turns into optimistic as Lord Krisha imparts information of Hindu philosophy to him. The feelings expressed by Krishna present that with philosophical information of dharma and mentorship, a troubled thoughts can get readability for making the suitable choices in instances of battle.
One limitation of our mannequin is that it was educated on knowledge from Twitter, so it recognises “joking” as a standard sentiment. It applies this label inappropriately to some components of the Bhagavad Gita. Humour is difficult and strongly culturally constrained, and understanding it’s an excessive amount of to ask of our mannequin at this stage.
Because of the nature of the Sanskrit language, the truth that the Bhagavad Gita is a track with rhythm and rhyme, and the various dates of the translations, completely different translators used completely different vocabulary to explain the identical ideas.
The desk under reveals a few of the most semantically comparable verses from the three translations.
The makes use of of sentiment evaluation
Our analysis factors the way in which to the usage of AI-based applied sciences for evaluating translations and reviewing sentiments in a variety of texts.
This know-how can be prolonged to evaluation sentiments expressed in leisure media. One other potential software is analysing motion pictures and songs to offer insights to folks and authorities concerning the suitability of content material for kids.